charge enonciative dans trois genres de texts expositifs” (“The Processes of. Enunciation in Three Types of Expository Text”) (Itziar Plazaola. Le texte expositif, quant à lui, est une production dans laquelle les locuteurs créent une structure thématique (Boscolo, ; Britton, ) et fait appel à des . Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie.
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The Relationship between Depth of Processing and Context. However, previous studies have typically compared a headings condition to a no headings control condition. Les objets textuels de type titre. It is possible to construct signaling devices that communicate the same information i.
From this perspective, psychological researchers appear to have taken a simplistic view of titles and headings, ignoring their capacity to fulfil and possibly combine several functions.
Their influence is achieved via at least three mechanisms. In this case the heading identifies the topic as major participant.
Bibliographie AustinJ. Educational Psychology Review 1 3: Effects of Encoding Cues on Prose Learning.
An Introduction to Functional Grammar. An Essay in the Philosophy of Language.
An expository text of any length typically has a complex structure that poses substantial challenges to readers. In addition, all conventional uses of headings appear to involve emphasis of the sxpositif e. Headings that demarcate and label text sections simply by numbering them can be expected to have very different effects on text processing than headings that demarcate, label and identify the topics of text sections.
Understanding How Headings Influence Text Processing
Effects of Headings on Text Processing Strategies. Rather, an understanding of the effects of headings and other signaling devices on text processing must be based on an analysis of the information functions served by the headings. Topic Structure Representation and Text Recall.
This propositional topic can take the form of a verbal noun, nominalization, infinitive clause or even a hexte with a finite verb, and there teste no direct repetition in the text, but rather topical development making use of different —though thematically related— expressions. It is likely that text processing is different under these circumstances than under conditions where headings are redundant with specific text content.
The investigation of the topic identification function associated to titles and headings could be supported by a technique such as Latent Semantic Analysis e. Journal of Educational Psychology 88 1: Discourse Processes 15 3: Thus, the psychological literature presents an informative, coherent body of results on the effects of titles and headings.
In addition, they remember the signaled content better. The control version of the text omits the headings but retains the topic sentences and therefore retains the same information content as the experimental version of the text. Discourse Processes 9 4: Contemporary Educational Psychology 20 1: Readers are much more likely to designate as important statements from paragraphs immediately following the demarcating information than to designate statements from other paragraphs.
Thus, SARA changes the level of analysis from the heading to their information functions.
First, when headings are used to highlight the organization of topics in a well-structured text, they lead to better memory for that organization; in turn, better memory for text organization leads to better overall recall. The reader-based component relates the text-based dimensions to reader variables to predict signaling effects on text processing 3. Based on this approach to understanding the purposes of signaling devices, SARA proposes that signals may be analyzed along four dimensions: They were timed to locate the specific sentences in texts that had topic-identifying headings or texts that had headings that did not identify topics.
SARA hypothesizes that any signaling device serves one or more of seven distinguishable information functions:. Signaling as a Cognitive Guide in Multimedia Learning. The preview sentence at the start of a new text section might be: We present a theory of signaling devices that provides a detailed analysis of variation in titles and headings and generates predictions concerning their effects.
Contemporary Educational Psychology 21 3: Expositiff example, parallel versions of headings and preview sentences may be constructed. Effects of Topic Headings on Text Processing: A comparison of a text with vs. Contemporary Educational Psychology 32 3: Memory and Cognition 5 4: Rather, headings are sometimes used to identify only the function of a section e.
The question of task relevance is an entirely reader-based consideration: One potentially important dimension concerns the visual properties of headings; headings vary in their typographical and spatial properties. This visual communication of demarcation by the heading is a more visually salient cue that might result in more attention on the part of the reader. Some Investigations of Comprehension and Recall.